The Effectiveness and Risks of Long-Term Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain – Annals of Internal Medicine
A Systematic Review for a National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop.
Weighing the risks for opioid Therapy – American Family Physician
Although evidence supports the use of opioids for treating acute pain, the evidence for the use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic pain is limited. When considering chronic opioid therapy, physicians should weigh the risks against any possible benefits throughout the therapy, including assessing for the risks of opioid misuse, opioid use disorder, and overdose.